Nutritional DNA test
PREVENTIVE GENE CONTROL (DNA test):
Its offer in PREVENTION - PERSONALIZED TREATMENT OF OBESITY
Predisposing genetic testing analyzes a large number of genes selected from published scientific literature and linked to predisposition to obesity and increased body mass index (∆ΜΣ).
Genetic testing allows the identification of the potential increased risk in relation to the general population for the development of obesity by controlling genes that affect:
1) energy austerity, economy
3) limited lipid oxidation
4) lipogenesis and
5) Improved physical activity.
Preventive medicine and advances in genetics have laid the groundwork for a new way to deal with weight gain. Predisposing genomics tests, in addition to identifying possible increased predisposition, enable the application of specialized interventions in diet and lifestyle in order to reduce weight.
All genes are tested regardless of gender and age. Sampling is very easy by taking an epithelial scrap from the cheek mucosa with a cotton swab.
The genes we research and their effect on the areas we are interested in:
- RESPONSE TO FOOD RECEIPT / FEELING OF REWARD
The gene DRD2 related to the function of the brain's reward center . At reduced levels of this protein there are reduced dopamine and brain binding sites and reduced euphoric capacity.. Individuals may show increased susceptibility to substance substitutes, such as food, which can enhance such feelings of euphoria. They therefore have an increased risk of obesity. People show a tendency to act without "second thoughts", making decisions by implication, With a reduced ability to plan for the future. They therefore have a slightly higher risk compared to the general population for weight gain and obesity (Inadequate Reward Syndrome (Reward Deficiency Syndrome))
The gene 5-HT2A associated with energy balance regulation and effect on the brain's reward center. The pathological genotype is associated with higher dietary intake of fat and energy in general. Carriers have a slightly increased risk compared to the general population for weight gain and obesity
The gene ADRB3 It is related to the regulation of lipolysis and has an effect on the body mass index. The gene ADRB2 is related to the regulation of lipolysis and the production of thermal energy through metabolism. Individuals with the abnormal genotype have reduced lipid metabolism with an increased risk compared to the general population to develop obesity in adulthood., but this chance is greatly reduced by exercise. Also the risk of developing abdominal obesity increases when the diet is rich in carbohydrates.
The gene ADRA2A is associated with the regulation of lipolysis and blood glucose levels. In abnormal genotype we have elevated blood glucose levels, increased fat storage as well as increased blood pressure. With proper training and nutrition, athletes can maintain or even increase their mental mass and consequently reduce the mass of fat in the
The gene ADRB1 is related to the regulation of lipolysis and blood pressure. Exercise has a particularly positive effect on people with abnormal genotype
- NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIOR AND METABOLISM
The gene AGRP is related to the regulation of eating behavior. People with a pathological genotype have an increased risk compared to the general population for weight gain and obesity, mainly at older ages. The gene CAPN10 related to glucose metabolism. Abnormal genotype shows reduced CAPN10 levels in skeletal muscle. This causes the Forces to 'avoid' glucose metabolism to produce energy.. Gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis) and caloric requirements during fasting periods are reduced. The body prefers to metabolize lipids and extend glycogen storage. When the body is supplied with sufficient amounts of food, People with this disorder have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and obesity compared to the general population., as a symptom of Metabolic Syndrome. The gene GNB3 related to the regulation of lipogenesis and the regulation of blood pressure. The pathological genotype This genotype is associated with increased lipogenesis. Individuals are at increased risk relative to the general population (1,23x)for a high body mass index and the development of obesity in the case of limited physical activity. Especially men, have an increased predisposition in relation to the general population for an increased pressure region. The risk of obesity is negated in case of increased physical activity. The gene MCHR1 related to appetite (desire for food), promoted by the binding of the protein to MCH. As a result, people with a pathological genotype have an increased appetite that leads to a predisposition compared to the general population for easier weight gain and obesity.. Appetite-suppressing drugs may be beneficial for people with this type of gene who have weight problems. The gene BDNF related to the energy balance (the balance
that is, between energy intake and consumption) and a willingness to exercise. Negative effect of BDNF on the energy balance, players have an increased predisposition in relation to the general population (1,25x) for the development of obesity. Polymorphism is associated with increased
predisposition in relation to the general population for the development of childhood obesity. The gene PPARg2 Related to fat cell differentiation and lipid and insulin metabolism.
The gene INVITE Related to the effect on fat accumulation and body mass index. Carriers have an increased risk compared to the general population for obesity, childhood obesity and increased BMI (Body Mass Index) by o,45 Kg/m2. This risk is significantly reduced with exercise. The gene MC4R It is related to the regulation of appetite and the regulation of fat accumulation in the periphery. The gene SCG3 is related to the regulation of appetite. In abnormal genotype we have reduced SCG3 activity. Orexin suppression, of MCH
and NPY µ µ, Consequently increased appetite (desire for food). Players have a predisposition for .greater food consumption, facing an increased risk in relation to the general population for obesity. The gene ACDC related to the regulation of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The pathological genotype is related to childhood
obesity (OR 1,24) and increased BMI in adulthood. It also has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. The gene LEPR is related to the regulation of eating behavior. In a pathological genotype, resistance to leptin develops, consequently the appetite is not regulated properly. Carriers have an increased risk compared to the general population for weight gain and obesity. The gene SH2B1 is related to the regulation of fat storage and leptin levels. In abnormal genotype we have increased levels of leptin in the hypothalamus which lead to leptin resistance and increased risk for weight gain and obesity. Carriers have slightly increased risk compared to the general population for increased BMI and obesity. The gene FABP2 related to intestinal absorption of fatty acids and lipid metabolism. Disorders in the absorption of fatty acids, result in
increased fat oxidation, increased levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in the circulation and total cholesterol. People have a slightly increased risk compared to the general population for weight gain and obesity
- INFLAMMATIVE RESPONSE AND OBESITY
The gene THE-6 related to glucose metabolism. The pathological genotype is associated with reduced use of glucose by the body and reduced energy production by it. This results in an increase in glucose stores, inhibition of lipolysis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation. An increase in blood glucose causes insulin resistance, characteristic of the Metabolic Syndrome that gradually leads to obesity. Operators have an increased risk compared to the general population for a higher BMI. Polymorphism is a predisposing indicator for abdominal obesity and parameters of glucose and insulin homeostasis. particularly, Obese carriers show a greater increase in IL6 levels, are five times more likely to develop type II diabetes and 5, twice as high risk of obesity-related diseases as carriers of other peers. The IL-6 gene is also associated with the inflammatory response
The gene TNF-a associated with the inflammatory response and insulin response.
The gene CRP associated with the inflammatory response. In abnormal genotype we have increased CRP levels associated with increased BMI and a low fat diet is recommended
- HYPERTENSION - OBESITY
The gene ADD1 is associated with a risk of developing hypertension due to dietary salt intake. The gene EIGHT is related to the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. In abnormal genotype we have increased blood pressure, mainly in the intake of salt. Carriers have an increased risk of hypertension compared to the general population (1,9x),which is due to sensitivity to salt. The risk is reduced by a diet low in salt. The gene CYP11B2 is related to the reabsorption of Sodium by the kidneys and the regulation of blood pressure. The gene ΝΟS3 associated with vasodilation and tissue oxygenation. The gene ACE related to the regulation of blood pressure. Elevated ACE levels in the blood are associated with increased blood pressure and an increased risk of being associated with the general population for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (1,62x)
- ANTIOXIDANT ACTION AND DETOXIFICATION
The gene CAT is associated with antioxidant protection and neutralization of free radicals. At increased enzyme activity of the gene there is a reduced risk compared to the general population for the development of cancer (0,83x), while in combination with fruit consumption the risk is further reduced (0,59x). The genes, SALTS, SOD3 are also associated with antioxidant protection of skin cells. The gene GPX1 associated with cellular aging, detoxification and antioxidant capacity. The gene SOD2 is associated with protection against oxygen free radicals and the risk of cell damage due to increased oxidative stress. The gene UCP2 associated with antioxidant activity. Improved protection against free radicals leads to increased cell damage, especially when people follow a diet low in antioxidants.
The genotype is also associated with metabolic disorders and the development of insulin resistance., as the corresponding enzyme is involved in the regulation of leptin and in the regulation of food intake. The presence of polymorphism in combination with polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene is associated with weight gain over time.
The gene EPHX1 associated with the metabolism of xenobiotic and pro-carcinogenic compounds to carcinogens. Associated with protection against environmental toxins, especially those found in car exhaust, Cigarette smoke and charcoal smoke used for cooking purposes. In a pathological genotype we have a higher risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various forms of cancer.
- LIPID METABOLISM
Genes are involved APOA5, APOC3, ΑΡΟΒ, LIPC which are related to lipid metabolism. People with abnormal APOA5 genotype have elevated blood lipid levels and are at increased risk. (1,4x) in relation to the general population for heart attack.
The genes APOC3 and LPL related to triglyceride metabolism. The pathological genotype of LPL is associated with elevated levels of VLDL in the blood, especially in people who consume a lot of animal fats in their diet.. The gene APOA1 related to the rate at which lipids are removed from the bloodstream (protection of the cardiovascular system)
The gene ΡΟΝ1 is related to the regulation of HDL cholesterol. Its abnormal expression leads to an increased risk of elevated LDL and low HDL levels in the blood. This carries an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. particularly, diabetics are at increased risk (8,8x) for carotid atherosclerosis.
The gene CETP related to the synthesis of HDL cholesterol ("Good cholesterol") but also with the transport capacity of HDL. Also the gene LIPC is also associated with a predisposition to type II diabetes.
- LEVELS OF HOMOCYSTINE :
The genes TNC2 and MTR and MTRR related to the regulation of oocysteine levels in the blood (removal of homocysteine). The gene MTHFR is involved in the metabolism of folic acid and the regulation of oocysteine levels in the blood. In reduced functionality we have an increased predisposition for high levels of oncocysteine in the blood and risk of cardiovascular disease-coronary heart disease. It is good to enhance our diet with foods rich in B-complex vitamins (folic acid, B6, B12).
The test results are easy to understand as the effect of each genotype is described in color, in which the green color indicates the existence of a genetic advantage for each gene that accompanies, yellow indicates the neutral expression of the gene without any effect on the body and red indicates an increased risk associated with the occurrence of damage to the biological system. The genotypes corresponding to the green and yellow color of the liver do not require corrective movement. However, those that correspond to the red color of the liver need corrective actions..
also, in "Interpretations of results" the final conclusion concerning each gene category is drawn according to the severity of each negative genotype. This means that it is possible even though the green markings on each piece are many times larger than the red ones., the gene profile for these genes may indicate increased risk and vulnerability.
Example result for gene
- DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell and is the carrier of genetic information, not only in the sense of feature transfer, but also the specialization of each cell to perform its particular functions.
- The Gene represents a small part of DNA and is responsible for the synthesis of specific substances or the expression of a specific trait. (e.g. Eye color). The human body has 30-50 thousands of genes.
- Mutation is a variation of the DNA sequence, where a nucleotide in one gene has been altered by another. The profile of mutations in different genes can determine the chances of developing diseases and health disorders.