The papillomavirus (Papilomma virus, PV) belongs to a large heterogeneous group of DNA viruses. Some of them viruses have the ability to offend man and to be integrated into human genetic material remaining there throughout his life. Today, have been identified more than 120 types of papillomaviruses that offend humans (HPV), while young people are constantly being identified. Forty (40) from the 120 HPV viruses are considered sexually transmitted and are mainly transmitted with body fluids during sexual intercourse.
HPV offend the squamous skin epithelium and mucous membranes, including the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat, the cervix, the vagina and anus. They increase his mitotic activity and cause the appearance of various lesions, whose nature depends on the area of the body and the type of virus.
THE HPV contamination
The pollution of the epithelium by the HPV virus may either remain dormant or to develop into an infection with the development of clinical or subclinical disease. It is possible, at some point the infection develops into subclinical inflammation, which can be suppressed and re-latent. In adolescents and young adults, This procedure is common with the result that the HPV infection is transient. However, today we know that people wearing his informal forms HPV transmit the virus to sexual partners normally. Often, in people infected with the virus, neither macroscopic nor microscopic lesion is visible. THE incubation period of HPV infection usually ranges from 3 weeks to 8 months. Many times though, the time between infection with the virus and clinical manifestation of the disease, can be as well 10 years later! Epidemiological studies have shown that in the majority of cases, an accidental cell infection does not necessarily develop into inflammation and remains dormant for long periods of time.
THE HPV inflammation
HPV inflammation is divided into non-productive and productive. In the stage of non-productive inflammation, the virus genome is randomly integrated into the host chromosomes. On the contrary, at the stage of productive inflammation, the virus genome replicates as a plasmid (episome) separately from the genetic material of the host. At first sight, the non-productive phase may seem less harmful though, its integration HPV in the human genome, may modify the expression of viral proteins and to lead to carcinogenesis. A common target of the virus is the basal layer of the epithelium, where cell divisions take place. The access of viruses to this layer, secured through minor skin injuries, That is why sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral and / or anal) is the main mode of transmission of the virus because, due to friction it is very easy to create epithelial cavities. An important role is played by the number of sexual partners while the majority of sexually active women and men are thought to be infected once in their lifetime by
some subtype HPV. Direct skin contact with the HPV diseased area is a secondary, but not uncommon, way of infection. The virus can penetrate the epithelial cells of a healthy organism, both through injuries and through small abrasions of the skin or mucosa, after skin contact with an infected person.
Depending on the type of HPV and the damage it causes viruses are characterized as high risk, low risk and moderate risk. Sequence analysis DNA of HPV helps identify and categorize them and finally in a prediction of the possible lesions that are expected to occur in humans after infection with any of these types. Genital warts need to be differentially diagnosed by identifying the type of HPV. Some people seem to be more susceptible to HPV infection than others.
Prevention and early diagnosis
Existing methods for the detection of HPV are supported usually in the detection of morphological changes where he's got already caused by the virus in epithelial cells. These methods include cytological examination (PAP TEST), the most advanced method of liquid phase cytology (which also raises the suspicion of subclinical disease) and colposcopy during which existing lesions are revealed.
With these "classic" methods, his diagnosis HPV is done after the fault has preceded while there is no possibility of detecting the virus in a latent state nor the detection of precancerous conditions. The Pap test does not allow the acquisition of material for analysis from areas other than the genital area as well as has disadvantages in both the collection of material and processing, resulting in often either false-positive or false-negative results.
Prevention and early diagnosis for HPV is possible by performing specific analyzes to detect the virus at the level DNA. The only methods that detect and standardize HPV before the stage of productive inflammation is HPV DNA sequencing. Identifying and categorizing them can help predict possible lesions that are expected to occur in humans.
His innovative method HPV–DNA Test enables it collecting samples from different areas of the body thus locating the virus in epithelial tissues, The HPV-DNA TEST method is capable of detecting HPV timely and with great sensitivity, determining the type of virus before morphological alterations are caused. The diagnosis is immediate and the treating physician can promptly treat him appropriately.